Foreign relations of Latvia

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Foreign relations of Latvia are the primary responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Today's Republic of Latvia regards itself as a continuation of the 1918–1940 republic. After the declaration on the restoration of its full independence on August 21, 1991, Latvia became a member of the United Nations on September 17, 1991, and is a signatory to a number of UN organizations and other international agreements. Latvia welcomes further cooperation and integration with NATO, European Union, OECD and other Western organizations. It also seeks more active participation in UN peacekeeping efforts worldwide.

Council of Europe, CERCO, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency, UNESCO, UNICEF, International Criminal Court, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. It also is a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and of the North Atlantic Coordinating Council.

On September 20, 2003, in a nationwide referendum, the Latvians voted to join the European Union and Latvia's EU membership took effect on May 1, 2004.[1] Latvia became a member state of NATO on March 29, 2004.[2]

Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Riga

Diplomatic relations

Diplomatic relations of Latvia

Latvia maintains diplomatic relations with all UN members except Bhutan.

List of countries which Latvia maintains diplomatic relations with:
# Country Date[3]
1  Denmark 24 August 1991
2  Iceland 26 August 1991
3  Australia 27 August 1991
4  Norway 27 August 1991
5  Germany 28 August 1991
6  Sweden 28 August 1991
7  Finland 29 August 1991
8  France 30 August 1991
9  Italy 30 August 1991
10  Poland 30 August 1991
11  Greece 2 September 1991
12  Hungary 2 September 1991
13  Canada 3 September 1991
14  Belgium 5 September 1991
15  Switzerland 5 September 1991
16  United Kingdom 5 September 1991
17  United States 5 September 1991
18  Estonia 6 September 1991
19  Bulgaria 10 September 1991
20  China 12 September 1991
21  Romania 13 September 1991
22  Mauritania 18 September 1991
23  Netherlands 24 September 1991
24  Argentina 26 September 1991
25  Chile 26 September 1991
26  North Korea 26 September 1991
27  Slovenia 30 September 1991
  Holy See 1 October 1991
28  Portugal 2 October 1991
29  Russia 4 October 1991
30  Lithuania 5 October 1991
31  Ireland 9 October 1991
32  Spain 9 October 1991
33  Japan 10 October 1991
34  Mongolia 15 October 1991
35  South Korea 22 October 1991
36  Turkey 22 October 1991
37  South Africa 4 November 1991
38  Mexico 27 November 1991
39  India 7 December 1991
40  Philippines 17 December 1991
41  Jamaica 18 December 1991
42  New Zealand 19 December 1991
43  Cyprus 20 December 1991
44  Cuba 20 December 1991
45  Malta 1 January 1992
46  Ghana 3 January 1992
47  Israel 6 January 1992
48  Austria 19 January 1992
49  Singapore 20 January 1992
50  Egypt 23 January 1992
51  Luxembourg 29 January 1992
52  Ukraine 12 February 1992
53  Vietnam 12 February 1992
54  Yemen 13 February 1992
55  Croatia 14 February 1992
56  Thailand 19 March 1992
57  Belarus 7 April 1992
58    Nepal 20 April 1992
59  Venezuela 23 April 1992
60  Albania 29 April 1992
61  Mozambique 29 April 1992
62  Paraguay 3 June 1992
63  Senegal 9 June 1992
64  Tunisia 26 June 1992
65  Uruguay 6 July 1992
66  Iran 7 July 1992
67  Brazil 18 July 1992
68  Armenia 22 August 1992
69  Moldova 1 September 1992
70  Morocco 5 October 1992
71  Cabo Verde 21 October 1992
72  Ecuador 21 October 1992
73  Uzbekistan 3 November 1992
74  Mali 26 November 1992
75  Kazakhstan 10 December 1992
76  Czech Republic 1 January 1993
77  Slovakia 1 January 1993
78  Guatemala 14 January 1993
79  Bangladesh 21 January 1993
80  Oman 5 February 1993
81  Turkmenistan 5 February 1993
82  Georgia 11 March 1993
83  Kyrgyzstan 18 March 1993
84  Antigua and Barbuda 19 March 1993
85  Burundi 24 May 1993
86  Syria 25 May 1993
87  Malaysia 12 June 1993
88  Indonesia 25 August 1993
89  Azerbaijan 11 January 1994
90  Panama 22 March 1994
91  Seychelles 24 March 1994
92  Tajikistan 11 May 1994
93  Maldives 20 June 1994
94  Nicaragua 20 June 1994
95  Kuwait 15 July 1994
96  Sao Tome and Principe 26 July 1994
97  Jordan 12 September 1994
98  Laos 27 April 1995
99  Colombia 19 July 1995
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 15 August 1995
100  United Arab Emirates 18 September 1995
101  Cambodia 22 September 1995
102  North Macedonia 14 March 1996
103  Bosnia and Herzegovina 19 April 1996
104  Chad 23 April 1996
105  Kenya 23 April 1996
106  Pakistan 29 April 1996
107  Ivory Coast 4 June 1996
108  Peru 23 July 1996
109  Andorra 27 August 1996
110  Sri Lanka 19 September 1996
111  Gabon 31 October 1996
112  Liechtenstein 3 December 1996
113  Qatar 10 December 1996
114  Guinea 17 January 1997
115  Zambia 27 February 1997
116  Benin 19 March 1997
117  Namibia 11 April 1997
118  Tanzania 28 November 1997
119  Lebanon 16 January 1998
120  Gambia 12 March 1998
121  Algeria 29 April 1998
122  Malawi 10 September 1998
123  San Marino 7 March 2000
124  Bahrain 27 March 2000
125  Brunei 14 July 2000
126  El Salvador 11 January 2001
127  Serbia 19 January 2001
128  Nigeria 30 March 2001
129  Dominican Republic 15 August 2001
130  Mauritius 12 February 2003
131  Trinidad and Tobago 11 March 2003
132  Botswana 17 March 2003
133  Saudi Arabia 21 March 2003
134  Costa Rica 15 May 2003
135  Honduras 1 July 2003
136  Bolivia 8 July 2003
137  Iraq 15 October 2004
138  Afghanistan 18 January 2005
139  Bahamas 20 January 2005
140  Belize 3 February 2005
141  Guyana 16 March 2005
142  Montenegro 19 June 2006
143  Saint Lucia 21 June 2006
144  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25 August 2006
145  Haiti 14 December 2006
146  Libya 16 February 2007
147  Rwanda 10 April 2007
148  Dominica 27 September 2007
149  Fiji 7 March 2008
150  Ethiopia 11 March 2008
151  Barbados 15 May 2008
 Kosovo 10 June 2008
152  Monaco 15 October 2008
153  Equatorial Guinea 13 November 2008
154  Suriname 20 May 2009
155  Saint Kitts and Nevis 8 June 2009
156  Comoros 24 February 2010
157  Democratic Republic of the Congo 14 January 2011
158  Burkina Faso 6 April 2011
159  Angola 7 July 2011
160  Tuvalu 7 July 2011
161  Djibouti 30 March 2012
162  Eritrea 5 April 2012
163  Niger 17 April 2012
164  Central African Republic 30 May 2012
165  Samoa 28 June 2012
166  Solomon Islands 28 June 2012
167  Grenada 19 September 2012
168  Myanmar 26 September 2012
169  Republic of Congo 26 September 2013
170  Timor-Leste 27 September 2013
171  Uganda 1 October 2013
172  Lesotho 10 February 2014
173  Liberia 10 April 2014
174  Togo 23 September 2014
175  Somalia 26 September 2014
176  Sierra Leone 12 December 2014
177  Sudan 23 January 2015
178  Zimbabwe 23 January 2015
179  Federated States of Micronesia 25 February 2015
180  Palau 20 March 2015
181  Vanuatu 7 April 2015
182  Kiribati 10 April 2015
183  Cameroon 16 April 2015
184  Papua New Guinea 9 May 2018
185  Nauru 21 May 2018
186  Madagascar 26 September 2018[4]
187  Eswatini 16 November 2018[4]
188  Tonga 28 October 2020[4]
189  Guinea-Bissau 14 July 2021[4]
190  South Sudan 23 September 2021[5]
191  Marshall Islands 19 September 2022[6]

Relations by country

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1928-02-16, 1992-04-22
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1928 and were restored in 1992.[7]
  • Albania is represented in Latvia by its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.[7]
  • Latvia is represented in Albania by its embassy in Rome, Italy and an honorary consulate in Tirana.[8]
  • Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[9]
 Armenia 1992-08-22 See Armenia–Latvia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland).
  • Latvia is represented in Armenia through a non-resident ambassador based in Riga (at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.[10]
  • Latvia has recognized the Armenian genocide in 2021.
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia[11]
 Azerbaijan 1994-01-11[12] See Azerbaijan–Latvia relations
 Bulgaria 1922-05-24, 1991-09-10[14] See Bulgaria–Latvia relations

Bulgaria is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland) and through an honorary consulate in Riga. Latvia is represented in Bulgaria through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland) and through an honorary consulate in Sofia. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.

 Canada 1921-01-26, 1991-08-26[15] See Canada–Latvia relations
 China
 Colombia 1922-07-08, 1995-07-19[17]
  • Colombia counts with an honorary consulate in Riga.[18]
  • Latvia counts with an honorary consulate in Bogotá and is represented by the German embassy in Colombia for consular services only.[19]
  • Colombia recognized Latvia as an independent country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.[20]
 Croatia See Foreign relations of Croatia
 Cyprus See Cyprus–Latvia relations
 Czech Republic
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark See Denmark–Latvia relations
 Estonia 1919-07-21, 1991-09-06[23] See Estonia–Latvia relations
  • Both states share a long common history: before 1918, they were both part of the Russian Empire.[24]
  • They were both re-occupied by the USSR between 1945 and 1991. Both countries established diplomatic relations on January 3, 1992.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Riga. Latvia has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • The two states share 343 km of common borders.[citation needed]
 Finland See Finland–Latvia relations
 France 1921-01-26, 1991-08-30 See France–Latvia relations
  • France has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Georgia See Georgia–Latvia relations
 Germany See Germany–Latvia relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Greece See Greece-Latvia relations
 Iceland See Iceland–Latvia relations

Iceland was the first country to recognise the independence of Latvia in August 1991. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on August 22, 1991. Iceland is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland). Latvia is represented in Iceland through its embassy in Oslo (Norway) and an honorary consulate in Reykjavik. Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, of NATO, and of the Council of Europe.

 Iraq 2004-10-15
  • Iraq recognized the independence of Latvia on January 1, 1992.[25]
  • In 2005, a project entitled Latvian Government's Assistance to Iraq in the Documentation of Architectural and Archaeological Objects with Photogrammetric Methods was implemented.la
  • Latvia's participation in the Iraq War commenced in May 2003. At their peak the number of Latvian soldiers in Iraq was 126. They were withdrawn on November 8, 2008.[26]
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia: Iraq[27]
 Israel 1992-01-06 See Israel–Latvia relations
 Kazakhstan 1992-12-30 See Kazakhstan–Latvia relations
  • Kazakhstan recognised Latvia's independence on December 23, 1991.
  • Latvia recognised the independence of Kazakhstan on January 8, 1992.
  • Kazakhstan is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Vilnius (Lithuania) and though an honorary consulate in Riga.[30]
  • Latvia has an embassy in Nur-Sultan and an honorary consulate in Almaty.
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Kazakhstan[31]
 Kosovo See Kosovo–Latvia relations

Latvia recognized it on February 20, 2008.[32] Latvian and Kosovan governments established diplomatic relations on June 10, 2008.[33] However, Latvia's involvement in Kosovo date back to 2000 when it first sent peacekeeping troops.

 Kyrgyzstan 1993-03-18
 Lithuania 1991-10-05 See Latvia–Lithuania relations
  • Latvia has an embassy in Vilnius.[35]
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Riga.[36]
  • The two states share 588 kilometres (365 mi) of common border. Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Luxembourg
  • Luxembourg did not recognise the annexation of the Baltic States by the USSR in 1940–1991 either de jure or de facto.
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were restored on April 21, 1992.
  • Latvia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussel (Belgium) and through an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City. Luxembourg is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland) and through an honorary consulate in Riga.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Malaysia

Latvia doesn't have any embassy in Malaysia.[37] while Malaysian embassy in Helsinki is accredited to Latvia.[38][39]

 Mexico November 27, 1991 See Latvia–Mexico relations
  • Latvia is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States, and maintains an honorary consulate in Mexico City.[40]
  • Mexico is accredited to Latvia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden and maintains an honorary consulate in Riga.[41]
 Moldova
 Montenegro See Latvia–Montenegro relations
 Netherlands See Latvia–Netherlands relations
 Norway See Latvia–Norway relations
 Poland 1991-08-30 See Latvia–Poland relations
 Romania 1922-01-03
  • Between June 2, 1922 – October 18, 1939, the diplomatic representation of Latvia in Romania was handled by the Latvian legation in Prague, in then neighbouring Czechoslovakia. In 1924, Latvia opened 3 honorary consulates in Romania (in Bucharest, Constanţa and Galaţi). In May 1929, Romania opened its legation in Riga.
  • On October 18, 1939, Latvia opened its legation in Bucharest.
  • Romania recognized Latvia on August 26, 1991.
  • Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on September 13, 1991.
  • Latvia is represented in Romania through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland).
  • Romania is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Vilnius (Lithuania) and an honorary consulate in Riga.[45]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO, the European Union, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Romania[46]
 Russia 1920-10-04 and again 1991-10-04 See Latvia–Russia relations
  • Until 1917, Latvia had been part of the Russian empire. Following the Latvian declaration of independence, war broke out between Latvia and the Russian SFSR.
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were first established in 1920, following the conclusion of a Soviet-Latvian peace treaty on August 11, 1920.[47] The treaty was ratified by the Latvian Constituent Assembly on September 2, and by the Latvian government on September 25. On the Russian side, it was ratified by the Pan Russian Central Executive Committee on September 9. Ratification letters were exchanged between the two governments in Moscow on October 4, the date on which in entered into effect. These relations lasted until the Soviet take over of Latvia in 1940.
  • Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government recognized the independence of Latvia on August 24, 1991.
  • Russia expresses concern for how Latvia's language and naturalization laws effect Latvia's Russian-speaking population. Russians comprised 27.6% of the population in 2010. In turn, Latvia is interested in the welfare of ethnic Latvians still residing in Russia. The latest Russian census shows about 40,000 still living in Russia, but sources indicate that given the probability of an undercount, Latvians in Russia probably number about 50,000–60,000.
 Serbia 2001-01-19
  • Latvia has a non-resident ambassador in Riga (in the Foreign Ministry).
  • Serbia is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Stockholm (Sweden).
  • Latvian Foreign Ministry about relations with Serbia[48]
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Latvia[49]
 Slovakia
  • Both countries established direct diplomatic relations on January 1, 1993. Latvia is represented in Slovakia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria). Slovakia has an embassy in Riga. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union. Latvian Foreign Minister Indulis Berzins and his Slovak counterpart Eduard Kukan met in Riga in 2000.[50]
 South Korea 1991-10-22[51] See Latvia – South Korea relations[52]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Latvijas Republika began on 1991-10-22.

  • The two countries have good relations.
  • Deputy Minister for Political Affairs Lee Kyung-soo visited to the Latvia in December 2018 and attended a plaque-hanging ceremony of the Republic of Korea embassy in Riga which is the Republic of Korea's first permanent mission in the Baltic region and a reception to celebrate the opening of the embassy.[53]
    • Latvian embassy[54] and an Honorary Consuls in Seoul.[55]
    • South Korean embassy in Latvia.[56]
 Spain See Latvia–Spain relations
 Sweden See Latvia–Sweden relations
 Taiwan 1923 See Foreign relations of Taiwan
  • Both countries had relations from 1923 to 1991.
  • The Republic of China (Taiwan) never recognized the de jure incorporation of Latvia into the Soviet Union.
 Tajikistan 1994-05-11
 Turkey See Latvia–Turkey relations
  • Latvia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Riga.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ukraine 1992-02-12 See Latvia–Ukraine relations
  • Latvia has an embassy in Kyiv and 2 honorary consulates (in Lviv and Odessa).[57]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Riga and an honorary consulate in Ventspils.[58]
  • There are around 92,000 Ethnic Ukrainians living in Latvia.[citation needed]
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ukraine[59]
 United Kingdom 1991-09
  • Britain had strong links with Latvia before the Soviet occupation and annexation in 1940, which the UK never recognised de jure.
  • The UK recognised the restoration of Latvian independence on August 27, 1991.
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Riga.[60]
  • Latvia has an embassy in London and 3 honorary consulates (in Manchester, Scotland and Wales).[61]
  • There were 26,000 Latvian people registered as living in the United Kingdom in 2010.[62]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office about relations with Latvia[63]
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with the United Kingdom[64]
 United States 1922-07-28 See Latvia – United States relations
  • The U.S. Legation in Riga was officially established on November 13, 1922 and served as the headquarters for U.S. representation in the Baltics during the interwar era. The Soviet invasion forced the closure of the legation on September 5, 1940, but Latvian representation in the United States has continued uninterrupted for 85 years.
  • The U.S. Embassy in Latvia is located in Riga.
  • [65]

See also

References

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